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WIPO/TISC/REPORT/18

Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISCs) Report 2018

Celebrating 10 years of TISCs

This Annual Report highlights key trends and milestones of the TISC program since its launch in 2009, with a focus on the main achievements and developments in 2018.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/56

Measuring Innovation in the Mining Industry with Patents

Economic Research Working Paper No. 56

Traditionally, the mining sector has been considered a slow innovator compared to other industries, like the manufacturing or pharmaceutical industries. However, we observe an upsurge in the innovation activity of the mining industry in the first half of the 2000s. During this period, mining innovation started to increase rapidly after periods of stagnation and downward trends. To conduct and in-depth investigation of the global trends and patterns behind this structural change in mining innovation, we formulated a general search strategy to identify patent activity in this sector. The strategy is repeatable over time and in multiple databases. It enabled us to produce a dataset of patents in mining and mining-related technologies. Using this newly-created database we identified at the basis of the structural change a switch away from refining technologies into exploration and environmental technologies probably explained by the took over of the so-called 4th Industrial Revolution. The types of actors active in the mining innovation also changed across time: there are now many more individuals, research centers and universities innovating in mining and relatively less companies. Finally, the country composition in the pool of mining innovation activity has radically changed with the appearance of China on the global scene starting from early 2000.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/55

Innovation in the Mining Sector and Cycles in Commodity Prices

Economic Research Working Paper No. 55

This paper analyses the evolution of innovation in the mining sector and how this innovation responds to the economic environment, in particular to changes in commodity prices. For this purpose, we combine commodity price data with innovation data as proxied by patent filings extracted from a novel unit record database containing comprehensive patent and firm level data for the mining sector from 1970 to 2015. We include patents registered both by mining companies and mining equipment, technology and service (METS) firms. With a multi-country panel analysis, we find that innovation in the mining sector is cyclical. Innovation increases in periods of high commodity prices while decreasing during commodity price recessions. Our results suggest that innovation increases mostly with long price cycle variations, while mostly unaffected by medium and short cycles. METS related innovation seem the driving force of this mechanism. In contrast, countries specializing in mining industries are found to be slower in reacting to price changes.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/54

Innovation and IP Rights in the Chilean Copper Mining Sector: The Role of the Mining, Equipment, Technology and Services Firms

Economic Research Working Paper No. 54

This analysis of intellectual property (IP) protection practices among mining equipment, technology and services suppliers (METS) in Chile's copper mining sector adds to a body of literature that has hitherto focused on high-income countries. It is based on data collated from an online survey of resident METS and on semi-structured interviews of executives from mining companies and suppliers, including two universities. The main conclusion is that, although METS appear to be innovative in relation to the mining sector and the economy as a whole, only a few use intellectual property rights (IPRs) to protect their innovations. The main reasons for this finding appear to be the cost and expected complexity of the registration process. Another noteworthy finding is the view that Chile has the requisite legal IPR expertise, but commercial capabilities (expertise in IPR-based innovation management and business plans) are much less developed. In the last section, four case studies of product and process innovation by four mining suppliers add some interesting insights to the analysis.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/53

Technology Appropriation and Technology Transfer in the Brazilian Mining Sector

Economic Research Working Paper No. 53

This paper focuses on the competitive dynamics, strategic challenges, technological needs and institutional innovation-promoting arrangements in Brazil's mining sector in order to identify the ways in which mining firms and mining equipment, technology and services suppliers (METS) handle innovation appropriation and technology transfer in the country. As the main sample consisted of resident and non-resident companies, the key technological areas of mining-related patenting in Brazil and the main patent stakeholders have been identified. The analysis of technology transfer among firms and to other mining industry stakeholders, mainly universities, drew on import contracts and highlighted the role played by foreign METS. A case study of Vale S.A., Brazil's largest mining enterprise, has been included, with emphasis on Vale's strategies to mitigate external challenges and to meet technological needs through innovation.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/204/2019/02

Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks; Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement; Regulations; Administrative Instructions.

The system of international registration of marks is governed by the Madrid Agreement. The Protocol relating to that Agreement aims at rendering the Madrid system more flexible and more compatible with the domestic legislation of certain countries which had not been able to accede to the Agreement.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/60

Measuring Innovation in the Autonomous Vehicle Technology

Economic Research Working Paper No. 60

Automotive industry is going through a technological shock. Multiple intertwined technological advances (autonomous vehicle, connect vehicles and mobility-as-a-Service) are creating new rules for an industry that had not changed its way of doing business for almost a century. Key players from the tech and traditional automobile sectors – although with different incentives – are pooling resources to realize the goal of self-driving cars. AV innovation by auto and tech companies' innovation is still largely home based, however, there is some shifting geography at the margin. AV and other related technologies are broadening the automotive innovation landscape, with several IT-focused hotspots – which traditionally were not at the center of automotive innovation – gaining prominence.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/59

Global Roots of Innovation in Plant Biotechnology

Economic Research Working Paper No. 59

Innovation in agricultural biotechnology has the potential to increase agricultural productivity and quality, ultimately raising incomes for farmers across the world. Advances in the field have produced crops that are resistant to certain diseases, that result in higher yield than before, that can grow in extreme soil conditions, such as in arid and salty environments and even those that are infused with nutrients. Moreover, the technology has been hailed as a potential solution to addressing global issues of hunger and poverty. It therefore follows that innovation in this field finds strong support from the public sector as well as the private sector. This paper traces the evolution of the global innovation landscape of plant biotechnology over the past couple of decades. Drawing on information contained in patent documents and scientific publications, it identifies the sources of innovation in the field, where they are located and demonstrates how these innovative centers connect to one another. There are three important findings. First, the global innovation network of agricultural biotechnology showcases a prime example of how innovation activities spread to many parts of the world. Second, while there are more countries participating in the innovation network, most of these innovation centers are concentrated in the urban areas and away from the rural where most of the transgenic crops are harvested. Third, the increasing need for collaboration between the private and public sectors to bring the invention to the market may have effect on how the returns to innovation are appropriated.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/58

Tied In: The Global Network of Local Innovation

Economic Research Working Paper No. 58

In this paper we exploit a unique and rich dataset of patent applications and scientific publications in order to answer several questions concerned with two current phenomena on the way knowledge is produced and shared worldwide: its geographical spread at the international level and its spatial concentration in few worldwide geographical hotspots. We find that the production of patents and scientific publications has spread geographically to several countries, and has not kept within the traditional knowledge producing economies (Western Europe, Japan and the U.S.). We observe that part of this partial geographical spread of knowledge activities is due to the setting up of Global Innovation Networks, first toward more traditional innovative countries, and then towards emerging economies too. Yet, despite the increasing worldwide spread of knowledge production, we do not see the same spreading process within countries, and even we see some increased concentration in some of them. This may have, of course, important distributional consequences within countries. Moreover, these selected areas also concentrate a large and increasing connectivity, within their own country to other hotspots, and across countries through Global Innovation Networks.

Publication year: 2019

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/57

The Geography of Innovation: Local Hotspots and Global Innovation Networks

Economic Research Working Paper No. 57

Through successive industrial revolutions, the geography of innovation around the globe has changed radically, and with it the geography of wealth creation and prosperity. Since the Third Industrial Revolution, high incomes are increasingly metropolitan, leading to a renewal of inter-regional divergence within countries. These metropolitan areas are also hotbeds of innovation. At the same time, global networks for the production and delivery of goods and services have expanded greatly in recent decades. The globalization of production is mirrored in the globalization of innovation. This paper argues that the emerging geography of innovation can be characterised as a globalized hub-to-hub system, rather than a geography of overall spread of innovation. Although much attention has been given to explaining the rise and growth of innovation clusters, there is as yet no unified framework for the micro-foundations of the agglomeration and dispersion of innovation. In addition, there appear to be strong links between growing geographical inequality of innovation and prosperity, particularly within countries. This is particularly relevant in the context of declining overall research productivity, which could be driving growing geographical concentration. All in all, there is a rich agenda for continuing to investigate the relationship between the geography of innovation, economic development and income distribution.

Publication year: 2019